CU6 : Tourists Health and Safety


Guest safety is the responsibility of a tour agent, tour guide and the venues they are visiting. Safety and security checklist must be established and inspected for the tour and the guests as follows :


  1. Check the tour route. The route must be free from danger such as falling rocks, landslide and wild or dangerous animals. The route must be suitable for the type of transport the guest will be travelling in.
  2. Check the weather condition. Tour must be delayed or cancelled should there be an extreme weather condition such as strong wind or heavy thunderstorm
  3. Check that the agent is covered by public indemnity insurance and it is valid.
  4. Relief course of actions in the case of an accident must be clearly defined, established and be understood.
  5. Be sure to have all emergency numbers such as the police, hospital etc
  6. Ensure the vehicle used is safe, suitable for the type of journey and equipped with safety accessories
  7. Safety briefing must be delivered to the guest prior the tour. This includes the do’s and don’ts at a place
  8. Check whether the places they are visiting practice standard safety procedures
  9. Ensure the places guests are visiting are free from public disorder such as riots, extremists etc..


1. Be Proactive

Take steps to anticipate any issues that could arise during your trip. The information in this section will help you plan for a safe and healthy trip.

  • Learn about your destination.
  • See a doctor before you travel.
  • Think about your health status.

2. Be Prepared

No one wants to think about getting sick or hurt during a trip, but sometimes these things happen. You may not be able to prevent every illness or injury, but you can plan ahead to be able to deal with them.

  • Plan ahead for illnesses or injuries during your trip.
  • Know what to do if you become sick or injured on your trip.
  • Know and share important information about your trip.

3. Be Protected

It is important to practice healthy behaviours during your trip and after you return home. This section outlines how you can protect yourself and others from illness during your trip.

  • Pay attention to your health during your trip.
  • Use sunscreen and insect repellent as directed.
  • Wear protective gear when doing adventure activities.
  • Pay attention to your health when you come home.

4. Respecting Wildlife and code of Conduct

The wild animals are not like those found in theme parks – they are not tame.

Many camps are unfenced and dangerous animals can (and do!) wander through the camps. Many of the animals and reptiles you will see are potentially dangerous. Attacks by wild animals are rare. However, there are no guarantees that such incidents will not occur.

Please listen to the lodge and camp staff and guides. The safety precautions need to be taken seriously, and strictly adhered to.



A tour guide meets people all the time. It is very important of a tour guide to show professionalism in his career as this projects the first impression of an individual, trust and a start of a relationship. The following conducts must be properly addressed and followed :


A normal practice is that a tour guide needs at least to be in collared shirt or T-Shirt. In some cases, a tour guide needs to be wearing uniform provided by a company he/she is attached to. No round collared T-Shirt to be worn during his/her duty.


Other than his/her duty hours, a tour guide must not be involved with an intimate relationship with the guest, or even his/her colleague. A tour guide must avoid socialising with his /her guest after duty hours as this can further damage trust and professional relationship which has been built throughout his/her duty. In extreme case, a guest may even file a complaint against a tour guide who breach the code of ethics as sush, and this may only bring harm to him/her and the company he/she is engaged in.

Other code of ethics which must be taken care of include table manners, social skills such as interpersonal skills and other social values such as be responsible, approachable, honest etc..


Esprit de corp is a French word meaning spirit of co-operation. Tour guiding is a job involving meeting people all the time. A tour guide needs to be flexible, patient and cheerful all the time. He/she must be able to handle various types of situations and be able to handle his emotion professionally. He must be seen as a person who is co-operative and has great social values



The common vehicles used, depending on the number of guests are car, limousine, van, mini bus, bus, and boat.


  1. The vehicle is already serviced
  2. The vehicle is filled up with sufficient petrol
  3. There is no object of hindrance or dangerous object within the vehicle
  4. The tyres are in good condition
  5. Spare tyre is available, in good condition and useable
  6. Basic repair tools are available and functional
  7. Safety belts are available where they should be and functional
  8. Seats are clean and safe
  9. Back mirror and side mirrors are functional
  10. All lights are functional
  11. Gears, clutch and brake are safe and functional
  12. If the vehicle is a bus, be sure that all signage are visible and correctly displayed
  13. Luggage compartment is dry and free from leaks

List of necessary “safety equipment” found on a tour coach and their uses.

No Item Purpose
1. Fire Extinguisher Act as fire retardant
2. First Aid Kit To provide early first aid help
3. Safety Reflector Triangle Use during breakdown
4. Torch light For providing light
5.   Trunk radio   Communicate when travelling and very useful during emergency
6. Tool box with jack For breakdown assistance
7. Flare gun SOS to indicate location
8. Spare tyre To replace worn out tyre
9. Portable pressure pump To inflate punctured tyre
10. GPS Tell exact location during travelling and when station


Fire Extinguisher

A fire extinguisher is an device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire.


Effective discharging time (s):≥15       Effective discharging range(m):≥4

Operating Temperature(℃):4~55         Delay action time of spraying:≤3

Class rating:1A,6B

How to use fire extinguisher :

  1. Carry the fire extinguisher as near as possible to the place of fire, and put it down.  
  2. Remove the plunger/safety pin, face the nozzle toward the fire.
  3. Hold and press the handle with right hand and hold the nozzle in left hand and aim and sweep at the base of fire. 

Types of Fire

There are 4 kinds of fires.

Class A : Ordinary combustible material like wood, which are put by a quenching agent like water.

Class B : Flammable liquids or greases such as gasoline, requiring a blanketing or smothering agent like foam.

Class C : Involving electric equipment, which requires a non-conductive extinguisher like carbon tetrachloride or CO2.

Class D : Fires of combustible metals where the quenching agent must cling to surfaces, conduct heat away and smother burning.

The 4 types of extinguishment are:

  1. Extinguishment with Water – ideally used because of its low cost and ready availability, relative to other conceivable liquids.
  • Extinguishment with Inert Gases – act to extinguish a fire primarily by dilution. CO2 is the most commonly used inert gas, although nitrogen or steam could be used.
  • Extinguishment with Dry Chemical Agents – provide an alternative to CO2 or the halons for extinguishing a fire without the use of water. These powders which are 75 micrometers in size are projected by an inert gas.
  • Extinguishment with Aqueous Foams – is for fighting flammable liquid fires. If flammable liquid is lighter than water and is insoluble in water, then application of water would simply result in the liquid floating on it and continuing to burn.

There are basically 4 ways a fire can be extinguished:

  1. Physically separating the combustible substance from the flame.
  2. Removing or diluting the oxygen supply.
  3. Reducing the temperature of the combustible or of the flame.
  4. Introducing chemicals that modify the combustion chemistry.

First Aid (Only by Licensed Professionals)

The key aims of first aid can be summarized in three key points:

  • Preserve life: the overriding aim of all medical care, including first aid, is to save lives
  • Prevent further harm: also sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening, or danger of further injury, this covers both external factors, such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm, and applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the condition, such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous.
  • Promote recovery: first aid also involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury, and in some cases might involve completing a treatment, such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound
  • Preserving life

In order to stay alive, all persons need to have an open airway—a clear passage where air can move in through the mouth or nose through the pharynx and down in to the lungs, without obstruction. Conscious people will maintain their own airway automatically, but those who are unconscious (with a GCS of less than 8) may be unable to maintain a patent airway, as the part of the brain which automatically controls breathing in normal situations may not be functioning.

If the patient was breathing, a first aider would normally then place them in the recovery position, with the patient leant over on their side, which also has the effect of clearing the tongue from the pharynx. It also avoids a common cause of death in unconscious patients, which is choking on regurgitated stomach contents.

The airway can also become blocked through a foreign object becoming lodged in the pharynx or larynx, commonly called choking. The first aider will be taught to deal with this through a combination of ‘back slaps’ and ‘abdominal thrusts’.

Once the airway has been opened, the first aider would assess to see if the patient is breathing. If there is no breathing, or the patient is not breathing normally, such as agonal breathing, the first aider would undertake what is probably the most recognized first aid procedure—cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR, which involves breathing for the patient, and manually massaging the heart to promote blood flow around the body.

  • Promoting recovery

The first aider is also likely to be trained in dealing with injuries such as cuts, grazes or bone fracture. They may be able to deal with the situation in its entirety (a small adhesive bandage on a paper cut), or may be required to maintain the condition of something like a broken bone, until the next stage of definitive care (usually an ambulance) arrives.

  • Training

Basic principles, such as knowing to use an adhesive bandage or applying direct pressure on a bleed, are often acquired passively through life experiences. However, to provide effective, life-saving first aid interventions requires instruction and practical training. This is especially true where it relates to potentially fatal illnesses and injuries, such as those that require cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); these procedures may be invasive, and carry a risk of further injury to the patient and the provider. As with any training, it is more useful if it occurs before an actual emergency, and in many countries, emergency ambulance dispatchers may give basic first aid instructions over the phone while the ambulance is on the way.

First aid training is often available through community organizations such as the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance, or through commercial providers, who will train people for a fee. This commercial training is most common for training of employees to perform first aid in their workplace.

  • Conditions that often require first aid
  • Altitude sickness, which can begin in susceptible people at altitudes as low as 5,000 feet, can cause potentially fatal swelling of the brain or lungs.
  • Anaphylaxis, a life-threatening condition in which the airway can become constricted and the patient may go into shock. The reaction can be caused by a systemic allergic reaction to allergens such as insect bites or peanuts. Anaphylaxis is initially treated with injection of epinephrine.
  • Bone fracture, a break in a bone initially treated by stabilizing the fracture with a splint.
  • Burns, which can result in damage to tissues and loss of body fluids through the burn site.
  • Cardiac Arrest,which will lead to death unless CPR preferably combined with an AED is started within minutes. There is often no time to wait for the emergency services to arrive as 92 percent of people suffering a sudden cardiac arrest die before reaching hospital according to the American Heart Association.
  • Choking, blockage of the airway which can quickly result in death due to lack of oxygen if the patient’s trachea is not cleared, for example by the Heimlich Maneuver.
  • Cramps in muscles due to lactic acid build up caused either by inadequate oxygenation of muscle or lack of water or salt.
  • Heart attack, or inadequate blood flow to the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle.
  • Heat stroke, also known as sunstroke or hyperthermia, which tends to occur during heavy exercise in high humidity, or with inadequate water, though it may occur spontaneously in some chronically ill persons. Sunstroke, especially when the victim has been unconscious, often causes major damage to body systems such as brain, kidney, liver, gastric tract. Unconsciousness for more than two hours usually leads to permanent disability. Emergency treatment involves rapid cooling of the patient.
  • Heat syncope, another stage in the same process as heat stroke, occurs under similar conditions as heat stroke and is not distinguished from the latter by some authorities.
  • Heavy bleeding, treated by applying pressure (manually and later with a pressure bandage) to the wound site and elevating the limb if possible.
  • Hyperglycemia (diabetic coma) and Hypoglycemia (insulin shock).
  • Hypothermia, or Exposure, occurs when a person’s core body temperature falls below 33.7°C (92.6°F). First aid for a mildly hypothermic patient includes rewarming, but rewarming a severely hypothermic person could result in a fatal arrhythmia, an irregular heart rhythm.
  • Insect and animal bites and stings.
  • Joint dislocation.
  • Poisoning, which can occur by injection, inhalation, absorption, or ingestion.
  • Seizures, or a malfunction in the electrical activity in the brain. Three types of seizures include a grand mal (which usually features convulsions as well as temporary respiratory abnormalities, change in skin complexion, etc.) and petit mal (which usually features twitching, rapid blinking, and/or fidgeting as well as altered consciousness and temporary respiratory abnormalities).
  • Muscle strains and Sprains, a temporary dislocation of a joint that immediately reduces automatically but may result in ligament damage.
  • Stroke, a temporary loss of blood supply to the brain.

A first aid kit is a collection of supplies and equipment for use in giving first aid. First aid kits may be made up of different contents depending on who has assembled the kit and for what purpose. It may also vary by region due to varying advice or legislation between governments or organisations


Adhesive bandages are one of Plastic Tweezers Disposable gloves most commonly used items often found in modern first-aid in a first aid kit.


  • First-aid book.
  • Triangular Bandages X 3 to 5.***
  • Conforming Bandages, 10cm and 15cm X 2 each.
  • Crepe Bandage 7.5cm X 2.
  • Tape 2.5cm X 1 Roll.
  • Absorbent Gauze (Small Roll).
  • Band-aids (Plasters)  X 1 Box.*
  • Sterile Dressings (Selection).**
  • Cotton Wool (50gr.)
  • Antihistamine, (for Bee Stings).*****
  • Antiseptic Solution 50ml.
  • Antiseptic Wipes X 4
  • Scissors X 1.
  • Safety Pins X 12.
  • Tongue Depressor X 4.
  • Latex Gloves, Pair X 2.****
  • Clinical Thermometer X 1.
  • Pen Torch X 1

Road safety

The term road traffic safety is an indication of how safe individual users are on some particular road, or on the roads belonging to some region. The main danger to road users is the likelihood of a traffic collision. Such dangers can be reduced by individual road users operating cautiously and defensively, by building roads in alignment with competent traffic engineering practices, by the application of rational traffic control methods, and by designing road vehicles so they are more able to avoid and survive collisions.

Tourist Guide must make sure the entire tourist always use walkway while walking on the road.

Always make sure that the road is in safe condition before crossing road.

How to reduce safety risk in a coach

Coach Risk assessments during peak periods when our regular coach providers may not have a vehicle available where the departure point would make it impractical to use one of our regular coach operators, when a last-minute breakdown, driver illness or other unforeseen circumstance prevents one of our regular coach operators from providing a vehicle & a replacement has to be found at short notice, when a coach breaks down on tour & has to be replaced by another vehicle, where a client specifically requests a local coach operator not on our “Frequent Use” list.

All coach operators must provide, on an annual basis, a copy of the following documentation: 

  • Operating Licence
  • Motor Vehicle Insurance
  • Public Liability Insurance 


Conduct Safety Briefing to Tourists

Malaysian Tourist Police

In Malaysia, Tourist Police can be found to increase the safety and security measure in some tourist spot.

All Malaysian Tourist police have the following:

  • They wear chequered hatband
    1. They wear a dark blue shirt and trousers
    2. They wear a Red and blue badge
    3. They wear a Badge with the letter “I” = Information.

Visitors who face problems while visiting Malaysia can seek the aid of the Malaysian Tourist Police. These officers usually patrol tourist attractions and the safety of visitors, give information to tourist such as the Law, Culture, tourist destination etc.

4 Ways of patrolling done by the Tourist Police

1) Walking                                                      

2) On motorbike

3) Tourist Policeman Patrol car                     

4) Tourist Policewoman Patrol car.

Some of the safety precautions or tips at the following places;

  1. Shopping Mall
  2. Always try to walk to and from your vehicle with another person. If you are shopping alone, consider walking near other shoppers in the parking lot.
  3. If shopping alone and leaving at night, particularly if you’re carrying several bundles, ask a security officer to accompany you to your car. Most malls will provide that service.
  4. Inside a mall, avoid darkened hallways and other backroom areas, especially near closing time.
  • Water Sports Activities

At the pool

  • Follow the rules. Don’t run around the pool or drink from glass containers.
  • Stay away from drains, filters and water intakes. Loose hair or clothing can get tangled in these structures, possibly trapping you under the water.
  • Monitor electrical power. Keep electrical appliances, TVs, radios and disc players, for example: a safe distance from the water. Never operate an electrical appliance when you’re wet.

At the lake, river or ocean

  • If you’ll be swimming in the open water, you’ll need to take a few extra precautions.
  • Heed warnings. Don’t swim in water known to be polluted. Pay attention to warning flags for high tides and other dangers.
  • Don’t fight a strong current. If you get caught in a current, swim parallel to the shore until you feel the current relax — then swim gradually toward shore.
  • Snatch thieve
Snatch Thieves have been around for as long as anyone remembers – or at least as long as purses have been around. To many, being snatch thieves is just part of life, however until it happens to your, especially if you are overseas, it can be very devastating.  The following information is designed to assist women to better protect their purses from being stolen, snatched, or have items removed without your knowledge.

Briefing : Safety Precautions during Travel

a. Don’t flash valuables

Everybody says this, but still many don’t seem to get it. Yes, showing signs of status and wealth anywhere will make you a target for theft — especially if you are in a place standing out in the crowd.

b. Keep money concealed

Keep your daily spending money separate from your main stash. Put enough cash for your perceived daily expenditures in a pocket or another easily accessible location and keep the rest in either a hidden pocket in your pants or a money belt along with your passport and credit cards.

 beware of your bags

c. Realize that you are a target

When you’re abroad realize that you are a target, you’re a fish out of water. No matter what the Travel Channel tells you you’re not going to blend in when traveling in a foreign country. Even if you go to a place where the people look like you, your demeanor, style of clothes, hair cut, shoes, and the way you talk are going to give you away. This isn’t a bad thing, it’s just something to keep in mind: you stand out like a sore thumb.

d. Give off a strong and confident demeanor

Wherever you go, whatever you do when abroad do so with a strong and confident demeanor. Don’t go through the streets pretending to blend in with the crowd — you don’t — and don’t act like meek and passive observer. Instead, walk through the streets with your head held high, look people in the eyes, and greet them in their language.

e. Remember that tourists are not called on for help

It is very, very rare for a local to ever request help or assistance from a tourist. So if a local approaches you and asks for help turn on the warning lights and ask yourself, “Out of all these people on this street why is this person asking me for help.” Sure, it’s easy to think that it’s because you just look like a nice person, but more often than not it’s because you look like a gullible foreigner.

f. If you are mugged

If the above advice fails and you do find yourself the victim of a mugging or armed robbery, be sure to make the thief happy. This means giving away your valuables — all of them. It is often suggested that foreign travelers should carry a dummy wallet which is full of expired credit cards and only a small amount of money, but I don’t recommend this route, as it could put you in a far more dangerous situation than you were in before.

g. Always remember: you are not a tough guy

Unless you grew up in ganglandia and through prison, the special forces of some military, or are a tried and tested martial arts expert, you are probably not really a though guy — no matter how much you don’t want to admit it. Even Bruce Lee said that if he were mugged he would hand over his wallet without a fight. No matter how tough you are, someone with a gun or knife, or who has a gang backing him up stands a good chance of coming out on top.

h. Plan for disaster

For each activity that you do on the road plan for things going belly up. Think to yourself, “How can this go wrong and what will I do if it does?” for each situation that you enter into. So if you’re riding on a bus, come up with a quick plan of action of what you will do if you’re held up by bandits. If you’re renting a car, find out the local laws about what to do if you get into an accident or what you should do if you’re pulled over by the police. If you’re going out to enjoy a city’s nightlife, be sure to have the address of your hotel on you somewhere so that you can show it to a taxi driver if you get too drunk or end up in an unfamiliar part of town. Find out in advance how you should deal with the police.

i. Get or carry a mobile phone

Carrying a mobile phone is now a global standard: no matter who you are, local or foreigner, it’s just expected that you will have a mobile phone on you. There is really no excuse, as cellular communication around the globe has drastically risen in quality over the past few years, it’s readily accessible, and is often relatively cheap.

j. Collect contact numbers

So be sure to load your phone’s contacts folder with a few necessary numbers, such as that for emergency response, the numbers for the hotels/ hostels you stay at, and that of any local friends you make.


Report all unanticipated incidence and also all related accidents

  • Place, person, what happened.. etc

Post mortem and search for causes and prevention

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